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John Stewart

Brake Booster Replacement

Brake problems can manifest themselves in a number of ways. Shoes or pads can wear out, leaks can develop in the master or slave cylinders, or the power booster on a power brake system could fail. In this case, the problem was the brake booster leaking vacuum on a 1994 Land Cruiser FZJ80.

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John Stewart

Basic Wheel Facts

How to measure a wheelThere are several critical measurements to take into account when selecting a wheel or when replacing your stock wheels with aftermarket wheels (wheels and rims being used interchangeably in this article). Among these important measurements are:

Wheel Diameter

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John Stewart

4x4 Tech: Driveline Basics


"It's just a steel tube with a u-joint at each end that transfers torque from the output of the transfer case to the axle. Nothin' special, right?" Well... yes, but that is an over-simplified answer.

There are many subtle things about a drive shaft and the conditions it operates in that will greatly affect how well the drive shaft performs. These subtle variables may have a profound impact upon the life of the drive shaft components, the amount of vibration the drive shaft produces, and whether or not the drive shaft is even capable of meeting your vehicle's specific requirements.

In this article we'll explain some of these subtle but extremely important variables, teach you about the different types of drive shafts that exist, and help you understand how to adjust the operating angles to ideal for the type of drive shaft that you have.

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John Stewart

4x4 Tech: A look at axle wrap prevention devices

Don't let this happen to your springs. Springs can deflect to take this shape under load, when the pinion has rotated up in reaction to the torque applied to the tires

Axle wrap is a problem that plagues leaf sprung vehicles with soft springs, particularly those that are set up SOA (Spring Over Axle). Axle wrap is something different than wheel hop. Wheel hop is when an axle on your 4x4 rapidly hops up and down. Axle wrap is unwanted suspension movement that allows the pinion angle to change. Wheel hop is annoying and could cause drivetrain breakage, but usually it's not the actual hopping that breaks parts, it's the axle wrap that results from the hop that causes drivelines to bind and breaks yokes, drive shafts, and sometimes even pinions.

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John Stewart

Tube It Out!

Tube It Out! Building a tube rockbuggy

There are many ways that tubing out portions of your four wheeler can improve it's off road performance. It can improve departure and approach angles, allow more engine cooling, protect the engine and radiator in case of roll over, allow larger tires with no lift, and improve visibility. Maybe the best reason is it just looks cool.

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OutdoorWire, 4x4Wire, JeepWire, TrailTalk, MUIRNet-News, and 4x4Voice are all trademarks and publications of OutdoorWire, Inc. and MUIRNet Consulting. Copyright (c) 1999-2019 OutdoorWire, Inc and MUIRNet Consulting - All Rights Reserved, no part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without express written permission. You may link freely to this site, but no further use is allowed without the express written permission of the owner of this material. All corporate trademarks are the property of their respective owners.